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  • Writer's pictureAlayna Dorfman

The Impact of Anxiety and Depression on Neurotransmitter Activity

Updated: May 13

Hey there, fellow travelers on the winding road of mental health! Today, we're embarking on a fascinating journey into the inner workings of our brains and  the interesting world of neurotransmitters. But fear not, we're not here to bore you with complex scientific jargon or mind-numbing lectures. Instead, we'll explore the terrain of anxiety and depression, observing how they emerge as products of our brain chemistry.

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First, How do Neurotransmitters Function?

Neurotransmitters serve as pivotal mediators in the intricate network of communication within the brain, transmitting signals between nerve cells and modulating various physiological processes. When disruptions occur in the delicate balance of neurotransmitters, often due to genetic predispositions, environmental stressors, or neurobiological alterations, individuals may begin experiencing symptoms that can significantly impact their mental health. 

Today, we will examine how neurotransmitter activity influences depression and anxiety. It is crucial to comprehend the neurochemical basis of these conditions to guide therapeutic strategies aimed at rebalancing neurotransmitters and relieving symptoms. Moreover, such understanding can offer valuable neurological insights to individuals actively engaged in improving their mental health and well-being.

So, join us as we embark on this adventure of self-discovery and healing. And remember, you're not alone on this journey – we're in this together, every step of the way!

How Anxiety is Impacted by Neurotransmitter Activity:

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Neurotransmitter activity plays a crucial role in anxiety by affecting communication between nerve cells in the brain. When there's an imbalance or dysregulation in such neurotransmitters, it can disrupt the brain's ability to regulate emotions and stress responses effectively. This imbalance may lead to heightened states of arousal, increased sensitivity to stressors, and persistent feelings of apprehension and worry characteristic of anxiety disorders.

Types of Neurotransmitters Associated with Anxiety

  • Epinephrine (think: adrenaline) is released from the adrenal glands and contributes to the body's "fight or flight" response, increasing heart rate, dilating air passages, and mobilizing glucose to provide energy.

  •  Cortisol, often referred to as the “stress hormone,” is also released in response to heightened norepinephrine levels, aiding in the regulation of metabolism, immune response, and blood pressure during stressful situations.

What can this Look like in day-to-day Life?

In day-to-day life, a neurotransmitter imbalance from anxiety can manifest in various ways, affecting both our mental and physical well-being.



  • Constantly on edge with racing thoughts that seem impossible to quiet

  • Frequent bouts of worry or fear, even when there’s no apparent reason for it

  • Concentration and focus might become challenging as your mind jumps from one anxious thought to another 


  • A rapid heartbeat, sweaty palms, or muscle tension, as your body reacts to perceived threats triggering your anxiety

  • Sleep disturbances, such as difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, leaving you feeling fatigued and drained during the day

  • Avoiding certain situations or activities that trigger your anxiety, which can limit your ability to fully engage in and enjoy life.

Overall, a neurotransmitter imbalance from anxiety can significantly impact your day-to-day functioning, making it difficult to find peace and relaxation amidst the constant turmoil within.

How Depression is Impacted by Neurotransmitter Activity:

Neurotransmitter activity can influence depression by impacting communication between brain cells. When there's an imbalance or dysfunction in neurotransmitter levels, it can disrupt mood regulation pathways, leading to depressive symptoms. This imbalance may be influenced by genetics, stress, or other environmental factors, contributing to the development of depression.

Neurotransmitters Associated with Depression

  • Serotonin, often referred to as the "feel-good" neurotransmitter, plays a crucial role in regulating mood, emotions, and sleep. Low levels of serotonin have been linked to depression, as it is involved in promoting feelings of happiness and well-being.

  • Dopamine is known as the "reward" neurotransmitter and is associated with pleasure, motivation, and reward-seeking behavior. Dysfunction in the dopamine system has been implicated in depression, particularly in the experience of anhedonia, or the inability to feel pleasure.

In our day-to-day lives, neurotransmitter imbalance from depression can manifest in various ways, affecting how we think, feel, and behave. 


  • Persistent feelings of sadness or emptiness that linger throughout the day, making it challenging to find joy or interest in activities you once enjoyed. 

  • Your energy levels may plummet, leaving you feeling constantly fatigued and drained, even after a full night's sleep. 

  • Concentration and decision-making might become Herculean tasks, as your mind feels foggy and unfocused. 

  • Appetite changes, such as loss of appetite or excessive eating, can also occur, disrupting your relationship with food and body image. 

  • Irritability and/or restlessness


  • Headaches

  • Digestive issues

  • Social withdrawal and isolation can become more common as you struggle to muster the energy or motivation to engage with others

Overall, the impact of neurotransmitter imbalance from depression can permeate every aspect of your life, making even the simplest tasks feel like monumental challenges.

How to Create Balance when Anxiety and/or Depression is Causing an Imbalance

Here's a comprehensive list of holistic strategies to find balance when anxiety and/or depression is causing an imbalance in neurotransmitter function:

  • Mindful Breathing: Take a few minutes each day to practice deep breathing exercises. Sit comfortably, close your eyes, and focus on your breath as it flows in and out of your body. This simple practice can help calm your nervous system and reduce feelings of anxiety or overwhelm.

  • Regular Exercise: Engage in physical activity that you enjoy, whether it's going for a walk, dancing to your favorite music, or practicing yoga. Exercise releases endorphins, neurotransmitters that promote feelings of well-being and happiness, helping to counteract the effects of anxiety and depression.

  • Nutrient-Rich Diet: Fuel your body with foods that support brain health and neurotransmitter function. Incorporate plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats into your meals. For example, foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as salmon, walnuts, and flaxseeds, can support serotonin production and help alleviate symptoms of depression.

  • Quality Sleep: Prioritize good sleep hygiene by establishing a relaxing bedtime routine and creating a comfortable sleep environment. Aim for 7-9 hours of quality sleep each night to support optimal neurotransmitter balance and overall mental well-being.

  • Stress Management Techniques: Explore various stress-relief techniques such as meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, or mindfulness-based stress reduction. These practices can help lower cortisol levels, reduce anxiety, and promote a sense of calm and balance.

  • Social Support: Cultivate supportive relationships with friends, family, or support groups. Share your feelings and experiences with trusted individuals who can offer empathy, understanding, and encouragement. Connecting with others can help alleviate feelings of loneliness and isolation often associated with anxiety and depression.

  • Limit Caffeine and Alcohol: Reduce consumption of stimulants like caffeine and alcohol, as they can exacerbate symptoms of anxiety and depression and disrupt neurotransmitter balance. Opt for herbal teas or water as refreshing alternatives to caffeinated beverages.

  • Creative Expression: Engage in creative activities that bring you joy and fulfillment, whether it's painting, writing, gardening, or playing music. Expressing yourself creatively can be a powerful outlet for processing emotions and reducing stress.

  • Nature Connection: Spend time outdoors in nature, soaking up the beauty and tranquility of natural surroundings. Take a leisurely hike, have a picnic in the park, or simply sit quietly and observe the sights and sounds of nature. Nature exposure has been shown to lower stress levels and improve mood.

  • Medication: Medication can be a vital tool in managing neurotransmitter function, particularly in cases where imbalances or dysregulation contribute to mental health challenges such as anxiety, depression, etc. These medications work by targeting specific neurotransmitter systems in the brain to either enhance or inhibit their activity, thereby restoring balance and improving symptoms.

For example, in the case of anxiety-related overactivation of norepinephrine, medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may be prescribed. These drugs work by increasing the availability of serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain, thereby dampening the excessive firing of neurons associated with anxiety.

BYBS supports the use of medication as part of a comprehensive approach to mental health and well-being. While holistic therapies often prioritize natural and non-pharmacological interventions, we also  recognize the importance of medication in certain situations where negative symptoms  can significantly impact a person's quality of life.

  • Professional Support: Seek support from a mental health professional such as a therapist or counselor who specializes in anxiety and depression. Therapy can provide you with valuable tools, coping strategies, and personalized guidance to help you navigate and overcome your challenges.

Remember, finding balance is a journey, and it's okay to take small steps toward wellness each day. By incorporating these holistic practices into your daily routine, you can nurture your mind, body, and spirit, and reclaim a sense of equilibrium and vitality in your life.

Do you feel like you need extra guidance with finding a balance that works for you?

Maybe anxiety or depression has been constantly throwing you off balance, making it hard to enjoy the things you used to love. At Be Your Best Self & Thrive, we're here to help you reclaim your sense of well-being and thrive in every aspect of your life.

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Meet Rochelle Young, one of our compassionate clinicians who specializes in anxiety/panic and depression.

“As a natural strategist and information gatherer, I focus on learning about you! This includes your past, present, and future. Therefore, my approach to therapy is person-centered and holistic. I have found that many of the things that hinder us from moving forward are our own coping mechanisms, something that may have once served us well in the past but is no longer working for us now. I will teach you techniques to manage ruminating thoughts or other anxieties you may be struggling with by exploring the root of these thoughts and practicing strategies together in a safe and comfortable space. My experience in teaching taught me that we are curious creatures, and that education can hold a lot of power in healing! Understanding what is happening in your brain and body can help you increase self-resilience and patience. I can help you develop a deeper understanding of your own thoughts and behaviors as well as how to use meditative techniques such as grounding, guided imagery, and deep breathing to release your stress and overwhelm and feel more grounded and calmer.”

With Rochelle's expertise and support, you'll have a trusted ally by your side as you navigate the challenges of anxiety and depression. Rochelle creates a safe and nurturing space for clients to explore their emotions, develop coping strategies, and ultimately find healing and growth.

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And Nicole Malene, our empathetic clinician who specializes in anxiety, depression, and stress reduction/burnout.

“My approach to therapy is holistic, highly somatic and draws on eastern philosophies centered around awareness practices, breathing techniques, and acceptance  and compassion training to help regulate both the body and mind and guide one’s energy towards a fuller and healthier expression of who they are. I believe that when one dedicates themselves to self-study and a more compassionate way of living, they can discover unhelpful habits and patterns of thought that perpetuate stress, trauma and discontent in daily life. When we learn how to be more mindful, we can find what it means to stay grounded, move energy that is stuck in the body, and ride the waves of this crazy thing called life.”

Are you interested in scheduling a free 15-minute consultation with Rochelle Young or Nicole Malene, get started here!

Jamie Molnar: Owner & Clinical Director of BYBS

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With a passion for understanding the intricate workings of the brain, Jamie is dedicated to educating clinicians and therapy clients alike on the relationship between anxiety, depression, and neurotransmitter activity. Though she is not accepting new clients at this time, her unwavering commitment to helping individuals thrive remains unchanged. Jamie's goal is to empower both therapists and clients with knowledge, fostering a deeper understanding of mental health challenges and paving the way for holistic healing and growth.

At Be Your Best Self & Thrive, our individual therapy services are holistically tailored to meet your unique needs. We're here to support you every step of the way on your journey to emotional wellness. So why wait any longer to start feeling like your best self? Reach out to us today and let's embark on this transformative journey together. 

You deserve to thrive!

A Message from the BYBS Content Creator

As I wrap up this exploration of the intricate relationship between anxiety, depression, and neurotransmitter activity, I'm struck by the resilience of the human spirit. Despite the challenges we may face, there is always hope for healing and growth. Let us embrace the journey toward emotional well-being with courage and compassion, knowing that we have the power to reclaim our balance and thrive. Here's to brighter and more balanced days ahead!

headshot of alayna dorfman a social media content creator for be your best self and thrive counseling, therapist in st petersburg fl, anxiety symptoms

Alayna Dorfman

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